#SAAM: Campus Law Enforcement Has a Significant Role in Addressing and Responding to College Sexual Assault

86% of sworn campus law enforcement officials have legal authority to make an arrest outside of the campus grounds.5

  • 86% of sworn campus law enforcement agencies have a staff member responsible for rape prevention programming.5

  • 70% of campus law enforcement agencies have memorandums of understanding (MOUs) with local law enforcement.5

  • 72% of campus law enforcement agencies have a staff member responsible for survivor response and assistance.5

  • Among 4-year academic institutions with 2,500 students or more, 75% employ armed officers, a 10% increase in the last decade.5

Resources: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/campus-sexual-violence

#SAAM: Sexual violence on campus is pervasive.

Sexual violence on campus is pervasive.

  • 11.2% of all students experience rape or sexual assault through physical force, violence, or incapacitation (among all graduate and undergraduate students).2

  • Among graduate and professional students, 8.8% of females and 2.2% of males experience rape or sexual assault through physical force, violence, or incapacitation.2

  • Among undergraduate students, 23.1% of females and 5.4% of males experience rape or sexual assault through physical force, violence, or incapacitation.2

  • 4.2% of students have experienced stalking since entering college.2

Student or not, college-age adults are at high risk for sexual violence.

  • Male college-aged students (18-24) are 78% more likely than non-students of the same age to be a victim of rape or sexual assault.1

  • Female college-aged students (18-24) are 20% less likely than non-students of the same age to be a victim of rape or sexual assault.1

Resources: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/campus-sexual-violence

#SAAM: Perpetrators of Sexual Violence Often Have Criminal Histories

Perpetrators of rape are often serial criminals.

  • Out of every 1,000 suspected rape perpetrators referred to prosecutors:7

    • 370 have at least one prior felony conviction, including 100 who have 5 or more

    • 520 will be released—either because they posted bail or for other reasons—while awaiting trial

    • 70 of the released perpetrators will be arrested for committing another crime before their case is decided

When convicted, perpetrators are spending more time in prison.

  • In 2013, there were 161,000 state inmates incarcerated as punishment for sexual violence crimes—that’s about 12% of all state inmates.9

  • These inmates are staying in prison longer: the median time served for sexual violence convicts has increased 10 months since 2002 (from 38 to 48 months served).9

Perpetrators Use Different Forms of Violence to Commit Sexual Assault

  • In 11% of rape and sexual assault incidents, the perpetrator used a weapon.6

    • 6% Gun

    • 4% Knife

    • 1% Other

  • Personal weapons—such as hands, feet or teeth—are used against victims of sexual violence in about 2 out of 3 cases.9

  • 90% of rapes and sexual assaults are perpetrated by one offender. 10% are perpetrated by two or more.6

Resourc: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/perpetrators-sexual-violence

#SAAM: Perpetrators of Sexual Violence Often Know the Victim

The majority of children and teen victims know the perpetrator.

  • Of sexual abuse cases reported to law enforcement, 93% of juvenile victims knew the perpetrator:2

    • 59% were acquaintances

    • 34% were family members

    • 7%  were strangers to the victim

Victims of sexual violence who are incarcerated are most likely to be assaulted by jail or prison staff.

  • In jail or prison, 60% of all sexual violence against inmates is perpetrated by the institution’s staff.4

Resources: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/perpetrators-sexual-violence

#SAAM: Native Americans Are at the Greatest Risk of Sexual Violence

On average, American Indians ages 12 and older experience 5,900 sexual assaults per year.14

  • American Indians are twice as likely to experience a rape/sexual assault compared to all races.

  • 41% of sexual assaults against American Indians are committed by a stranger; 34% by an acquaintance; and 25% by an intimate or family member.

Resources: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/victims-sexual-violence

#SAAM: Sexual Violence Can Have Long-Term Effects on Victims

The likelihood that a person suffers suicidal or depressive thoughts increases after sexual violence.

  • 94% of women who are raped experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during the two weeks following the rape.9

  • 30% of women report symptoms of PTSD 9 months after the rape.10

  • 33% of women who are raped contemplate suicide.11

  • 13% of women who are raped attempt suicide.11

  • Approximately 70% of rape or sexual assault victims experience moderate to severe distress, a larger percentage than for any other violent crime.12

People who have been sexually assaulted are more likely to use drugs than the general public.11

  • 3.4 times more likely to use marijuana

  • 6 times more likely to use cocaine

  • 10 times more likely to use other major drugs

Sexual violence also affects victims’ relationships with their family, friends, and co-workers.12

  • 38% of victims of sexual violence experience work or school problems, which can include significant problems with a boss, coworker, or peer.

  • 37% experience family/friend problems, including getting into arguments more frequently than before, not feeling able to trust their family/friends, or not feeling as close to them as before the crime.

  • 84% of survivors who were victimized by an intimate partner experience professional or emotional issues, including moderate to severe distress, or increased problems at work or school.

  • 79% of survivors who were victimized by a family member, close friend or acquaintance experience professional or emotional issues, including moderate to severe distress, or increased problems at work or school.

  • 67% of survivors who were victimized by a stranger experience professional or emotional issues, including moderate to severe distress, or increased problems at work or school.

Victims are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  • Studies suggest that the chance of getting pregnant from one-time, unprotected intercourse is between 3.1-5%13, depending on a multitude of factors, including the time of month intercourse occurs, whether contraceptives are used, and the age of the female. The average number of rapes and sexual assaults against females of childbearing age is approximately 250,000.1 Thus, the number of children conceived from rape each year in the United States might range from 7,750—12,500.12 This is a very general estimate, and the actual number may differ. This statistic presents information from a number of different studies. Further, this information may not take into account factors which increase or decrease the likelihood of pregnancy, including, but not limited to: impact of birth control or condom use at the time of attack or infertility. RAINN presents this data for educational purposes only, and strongly recommends using the citations to review sources for more information and detail.

Resource: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/victims-sexual-violence

#SAAM: Women and Girls Experience Sexual Violence at High Rates

Millions of women in the United States have experienced rape.

  • As of 1998, an estimated 17.7 million American women had been victims of attempted or completed rape.5 

Young women are especially at risk.

  • 82% of all juvenile victims are female. 90% of adult rape victims are female.6

  • Females ages 16-19 are 4 times more likely than the general population to be victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault.3

  • Women ages 18-24 who are college students are 3 times more likely than women in general to experience sexual violence. Females of the same age who are not enrolled in college are 4 times more likely.7

Read more statistics about campus sexual violence.

#SAAM: The Majority of Sexual Assaults Occur At or Near the Victim's HomeThe Majority of Sexual Assaults Occur At or Near the Victim's Home

What was the survivor doing when the crime occured?7

  • 48% were sleeping, or performing another activity at home

  • 29% were traveling to and from work or school, or traveling to shop or run errands

  • 12% were working

  • 7% were attending school

  • 5% were doing an unknown or other activity

Resource: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/scope-problem

#SAAM: Men, Women, and Children Are All Affected by Sexual Violence

Men, Women, and Children Are All Affected by Sexual Violence

  • Every 98 seconds another American is sexually assaulted.1

  • 1 out of every 6 American women has been the victim of an attempted or completed rape in her lifetime (14.8% completed, 2.8% attempted).4

  • About 3% of American men—or 1 in 33—have experienced an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime.4

  • From 2009-2013, Child Protective Services agencies substantiated, or found strong evidence to indicate that, 63,000 children a year were victims of sexual abuse.5

  • A majority of child victims are 12-17. Of victims under the age of 18: 34% of victims of sexual assault and rape are under age 12, and 66% of victims of sexual assault and rape are age 12-17.6

Resource: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/scope-problem

#SAAM: Rape Prevention and Education Program

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program provides funding to fifty states, the District of Columbia, and four territory health departments. These grantees collaborate with state and territory sexual violence coalitions, local rape crisis centers, and various state and community organizations to implement statewide sexual violence prevention plans. These collaborations help to leverage resources, strengthening and enhancing prevention programming.

The RPE program was established by the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) and focuses on the primary prevention of sexual violence (stopping violence before it even has the chance to happen). Some of the key guiding principles include preventing perpetration, reducing risk factors and enhancing protective factors, and using the best available evidence to plan, implement, and evaluate prevention programming.

An assessment conducted in 2010 by NSVRC found that RPE funds equip prevention education program staff with greater capacities and skills to develop, deliver, and evaluate prevention programs. The assessment also found that RPE funds reduce fragmented programming and bring stability to prevention efforts across the country.

NSVRC is one of two resource centers funded by the CDC through the RPE program.  Our role as a resource center is to provide training, resources, and information to RPE recipients and their partners on the development, implementation, and evaluation of sexual violence prevention strategies. We do this by collaborating with the CDC and other national organizations to identify prevention needs and plan ways to meet those needs.

Resource: https://www.nsvrc.org/prevention/rpe-program

#SAAM: Evaluation

Evaluation is a process that can be used to measure if and how a program or intervention is working. When it comes to prevention, we approach evaluation as a way to create checks and balances from the beginning to the end of a prevention program - to see if the prevention efforts are creating the kind of change we want to see.

Good prevention begins with finding out what your community needs. A needs assessment is an evaluation method that identifies areas of strength and need in a community and can help determine where to start with prevention programming. Once you have this data, you can work with the community to develop goals and objectives. Once a strategy has been selected and implemented, process evaluations like surveys, interviews, and focus groups can be used throughout to check in with participants and measure how the program is working. At this stage, you can make changes if something isn’t working. Then, when a program is completed, you can evaluate the impact of that program based on the goals and objectives that were established in the beginning and make changes as needed for the next implementation.

Resources: https://divinemoira.org/the-more-you-know

#SAAM: Prevention

In the sexual violence field, we use the term “primary prevention,” which means stopping sexual violence before it even has a chance to happen. Primary prevention challenges out-of-date and victim-blaming attitudes that place the onus on potential victims to protect themselves and frames sexual violence as a public health issue.

Primary prevention requires that we make the connection between all forms of oppression (including racism, sexism, homophobia, ableism, adultism, ageism, and others) and how these create a culture in which inequality thrives and violence is seen as normal. Effective prevention efforts utilize prevention theories to change communities, shift social norms, end oppression, and promote norms of equity, consent, and safety for all.

Resources: https://www.nsvrc.org/prevention

#SAAM: Prevention Theories

The Social Ecological Model is a helpful framing tool for talking about primary prevention. It is commonly used in the field of public health as a way to look at a comprehensive prevention approach for many different health issues. The Social Ecological Model looks like four nested eggs. Each egg represents an area in which we can create change. The smallest one represents individuals, the second smallest one represents relationships, the next one represents communities, and the largest one represents society. These are all different spheres in which we interact with each other, and where we can influence each other. Effective prevention efforts focus on multiple levels of the social ecology.

The 9 Principles of Effective Prevention Programs was created using a review-of-reviews approach across four areas (substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, school failure, and juvenile delinquency and violence). The authors identified nine characteristics that were consistently associated with effective prevention programs, and this framework is widely utilized in the field of sexual violence prevention to create and evaluate prevention programming.

  1. Comprehensive Services: Strategies should include multiple components and affect multiple settings to address a wide range of risk and protective factors of the target problem.

  2. Varied Teaching Methods: Strategies should include multiple teaching methods, including some type of active, skills-based component.

  3. Sufficient Dosage: Participants need to be exposed to enough of the activity for it to have an effect.

  4. Theory Driven: Preventive strategies should have scientific or logical rationale.

  5. Positive Relationships: Programs should foster strong, stable, positive relationships between children and adults.

  6. Appropriately Timed: Program activities should happen at a time (developmentally) that can have maximum impact in a participant’s life.

  7. Socioculturally Relevant: Programs should be tailored to fit within cultural beliefs and practices of specific groups as well as local community norms.

  8. Outcome Evaluation: A systematic outcome evaluation is necessary to determine whether a program or strategy worked.

  9. Well-Trained Staff: Programs need to be implemented by staff members who are sensitive, competent, and have received sufficient training, support, and supervision.

The Spectrum of Prevention is a tool developed by the Prevention Institute to assist communities in developing comprehensive sexual violence prevention initiatives. Designed for broad scale change, it focuses not just on individuals, but also on the environment, including systems and norms that contribute to sexual violence.

By working at all six levels simultaneously, communities can design an effective plan that promotes confidence that their relationships, homes, neighborhoods, schools, places of worship, and workplaces are safer.

Resource: https://www.nsvrc.org/prevention/theories

#SAAM: Get Involved

The movement to end sexual violence in the United States, and around the world, relies on people who’ve made a choice to do something. Sexual violence often seems inevitable, but the choice to do something and get involved has made incredible changes in national and global conversations about sexual violence. In recent decades, these changing conversations have expanded support for survivors and led to substantial innovation in the work of preventing sexual violence.

There are many ways you can become involved in the work of changing conversations about sexual violence, supporting survivors, and preventing sexual violence before it ever happens.

Volunteer: Community rape crisis centers often rely on the support of volunteers to provide services to victims (such as answering telephone calls from survivors) and to help implement prevention programs (like talking to students about sexual violence). NSVRC can help you to find the nearest crisis center to you.

Organize: Throughout the country, passionate groups of community members organize events, plays, and rallies to raise awareness about sexual violence. NSVRC and your community rape crisis center can often help you to find these groups, or give you advice on how to start a group of your own.

Learn: The root causes of sexual violence run deep and are sometimes hard to understand. Learning about sexual violence from resource centers like NSVRC can help you to understand these root causes, helping you to be a part of the national conversation about sexual violence and a more effective advocate for survivors and the work of prevention.

Donate: Like most social change endeavors, NSVRC, rape crisis centers, and other organizations working to address sexual violence rely on public funding to operate. Your donation is essential to pushing the movement to end sexual violence forward.

Resource: https://www.nsvrc.org/get-involved